Take Your Decision Making from Good Enough to Great

Aug 25

roller coasterEach and every day, we make hundreds of decisions large and small that shape the course of our lives, businesses, and society. Most of our decisions are good enough to get us by, but why is it that we have such a hard time making great decisions? The answer is: when it comes to making decisions, we are human, and research shows that we are subject to certain biases that impact our decision-making processes. Practicing strategies that countermand those biases make all the difference between an outcome that is good enough and one that is great!

Great decisions can lead to improved productivity, effectiveness, and the quality of your life. Although we cannot disengage our biases we can—through practice and discipline—employ the four strategies below to counteract them:

1.   Widen the Frame and Explore All the Possible Options

When faced with a decision many of us ask ourselves, “Should I choose option A or option B?” without ever considering that there are other possible choices, or that option A and option B are not mutually exclusive. Resisting the urge to too narrowly frame your choices at the outset prevents you from spotlighting only one alternative at the expense of all others. Widen your frame and focus by choosing to rephrase the question.

Instead of asking “What should I choose—option A or B?” ask yourself, “What are the possible options available to me in the current situation?” An open-ended question like that helps you shift the spotlight from center stage, and allows you to consider what lies just beyond the spotlight off stage. Inviting the full array of possibilities into the decision-making process enables you to entertain, explore, and allow the many possibilities to coalesce into a clear array of choices. Ultimately, your final choice(s) are more comprehensive and a more beneficial decision is made.

2.   Side Step the Confirmation Bias Trap

Our natural tendency is to seek out information that not only pushes us toward that which confirms our beliefs, attitudes, and actions, but also causes us to discount information and opinions that countermand our beliefs. Researchers and scholars refer to this tendency as confirmation bias. Side stepping confirmation bias can be difficult for even the most seasoned decision maker because it is so insidious. Often we think we are making a well-reasoned and logical appraisal of the facts, when what we have really been doing is seeking out information that supports our position and discounting information that does not.

So the first key step in side stepping confirmation bias is to acknowledge that it exists and be aware that we have to make adjustments in how we evaluate and weigh information given to us, especially information that supports our natural inclination and gut instinct. Inviting others who passionately disagree with you to challenge your original beliefs, assumptions, and view of the facts can help you highlight any gaps, unsupported facts, or conclusions. Be able to clearly identify the weaknesses in your point of view and the strengths of the counter argument, and consider both when making your decision. This can help you uncover contradictory evidence that calls into question your original inclination. Lastly, be more suspicious of information that confirms your beliefs rather than disproves them.

3.   Get off the Roller Coaster of Emotions and Get Distance to Gain Perspective

Emotions and feelings run high when one is faced with an important decision. We often feel like we are riding the emotional roller coaster of highs and lows as we start to consider the choices and their impact on our lives. Despite our best efforts, it is hard to remain emotionally detached from the decision and approach it in an objectively rational way. We can become myopic in our thinking, replaying the arguments for and against, and with each twist and turn become awash in emotion both positive and negative. The strategy for making better decisions and counteracting the short-term emotions associated with decision-making in these circumstances is to step off the emotional roller coaster and allow time for the short-term emotions to subside.

No matter how cool and collected you believe you are under pressure, your automatic stress response of fight or flight is at play. Creating and practicing strategies and ways of stepping back and not responding in the moment—even if for just a brief time—will help you acknowledge the things you’re feeling and give you the chance to get perspective. When possible, sleep on your decisions, take a brief break, or just pause and take a breath before going forward with action. Regrouping, refocusing, and slowing down your response, however brief, allows the emotion to subside, the dust to settle, and your automatic response to recede. In doing so, you create distance and perspective.

4.   Expect That The Unknown Will Happen

Our natural instincts cause us to have a high level of confidence in our ability to predict how the future will unfold. We focus on information that is close at hand, given to us by experts, based on other similar experiences, and draw conclusions from that. But there is one glaring problem: neither the experts nor we know what we don’t know. The things we don’t know have a tendency to sneak up and surprise us. Uncertainty and unpredictability are a part of life, and recognizing that they factor into how a decision plays out once implemented can help you prepare yourself to get it wrong.

Good decision makers know and accept that there are things that you cannot know in the moment, and that you don’t know what you don’t know until it happens. This knowledge enables you to prepare to make the necessary adjustments as the decision unfolds that will keep it on track toward your overall goal. Remember, 100% accuracy is not the mark of a good decision or decision maker, but it’s how you respond to those unknown facts, as they become known, that can make all the difference in the outcome.

These four strategies will help you make better decisions and make them with more confidence. However, give yourself a break when the inevitable bad decision happens… after all, we are only human.

Are you willing to give one or all of these a try in the next month? Please share your experience with me in the comments field below.


The Art of Persuading People

May 09

art-of-persuading-peopleWhen did you last have to persuade someone to decide in your favor?   Were you successful?

Being able to persuade is all about shaping judgment rather than creating certainty.  The key to successful persuasion is to be able to discern what motivates someone to decide and to artfully influence them in your favor.  

Someone is persuaded when the following three criteria are met:

  • The person has a clear idea of what you’re asking them to do
  • They are assured that it is within their power and best interest to do it
  • After hearing, the rationale for doing what you want, and the rationale for either doing something else or nothing at all they decide that what you’re doing is best

Are you ready to give it a try?  Here are some tips:

  1. Learn as much as you can about the person you are trying to persuade, what motivates them to decide?
  2. Educate yourself about the facts that favor your position and emphasize the ones that are the most defensible
  3. Have a clear idea of facts that do not favor your position, counter them on the merits or dismiss them as irrelevant
  4. Never overstate the merits of your side, you’ll harm your credibility, err on the side of caution don’t use phrases like always, or never.
  5. Give your best facts first, and then refute those that work against you.  You’ll appear evenhanded and trustworthy
  6. Don’t defend the indefensible. Openly acknowledging those positions demonstrates you are reasonable and avoids the appearance of trying to sweep things under the rug
  7. Appeal to other people’s common sense and fairness, not only is your choice factually right but it is within the bounds of reasonableness
  8. Close powerfully by creating a vivid image of the benefits to the listener for acting on what you have so carefully and logically presented

The Wrong Question to Ask: "What's Your Greatest Weakness?"

Apr 25

The Wrong Question to AskLanguage is the principle way we convey and communicate our frames of reference. We all communicate through a set of filters that have been shaped by our history, beliefs, values, and perceptions. Likewise, those who hear our words process them through their own personal filtering system as they try to understand us. I’d offer the following alternative to the strengths or weaknesses question for predicting someone’s behavior in a specific role.

Being able to ask questions that tap into a candidate’s unconscious thought and behavior patterns in given contexts and circumstances is a far more effective strategy for selecting the right candidate for a job. If you are looking
 for a candidate who won’t get caught up in groupthink, it would be
 better to learn the source of the person’s motivation and judgment.

A great question for eliciting this information is: How do you know that you’ve done a good job at work? If the candidate’s answer focuses on their deciding that they did a good job, or they indicate resistance to someone else making a decision that they did a good job, the source of their motivation and judgment is internal. Since they are internally motivated and their judgment comes from internal standards, they would not get caught up in groupthink.

On the other hand, if their answer revolved around comparing what they did to an external standard, or others’ opinions, the source of their motivation is external and they would be more likely to engage in groupthink. Neither approach is good or bad in and of itself. What matters most is that the person’s pattern, and what is needed for success in that role, is compatible. This is just one of the many patterns that interviewers can test for with candidates during the course of an interview.

An organization that is capable of accurately identifying the patterns for specific positions, and interviewing to test for those patterns in the candidates, will be well served and end up hiring and managing to people’s strengths instead of suffering from their weaknesses.